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Refine By Specialty [[missing key: search-facet. In describing a social or community problem, it is apparent that cultural and societal norms need to be considered. Traditional researchers might ignore these important influences, but Community Psychology researchers would put considerable efforts into understanding the politics and values that surround and give meaning to the behaviors and conditions we intend to change. In addition to initially describing and determining how to measure a social or community problem, research also investigates how the problem or issue is associated with other behaviors.
For adolescent misuse of drugs, a traditional researcher might investigate how it is related to family history, age at first use, mental health status, etc. However, a community psychologist may focus on peer use as well as locations within the community where alcohol, drugs, and tobacco are made available to youth.
Again, community psychologists give considerable weight to these types of ecological variables when trying to understand the various environmental influences on youth behavior. Being able to explain why certain people develop drug misuse behaviors can be complicated as well and involve many factors that need to be considered when conducting research. Many traditional psychologists would focus on trying to understand biological and psychological reasons for substance use such as depression or feelings of isolation. Community psychologists, on the other hand, would be more inclined to examine norms and opportunities within the environment.
For example, if youth in a neighborhood admire apparently wealthy drug dealers who engage in illegal activities, then this risky environment and these inappropriate role models could be some of the primary reasons for increased illegal drug use. To the extent we can describe, predict, and explain why misuse of drugs occur, we are more likely to develop effective Community Psychology based interventions which deal with factors beyond the traditional individual level of analysis. The Belmont Report outlined basic ethical principles and applications for research.
The three major ethical principles are Respect for Persons , Beneficence , and Justice. When seeking institutional approval for research with human subjects, these three areas are addressed in the application. Once again, most traditional researchers focus on individual factors e. Community psychologists would also be concerned with ecological factors. If the hospital setting was poorly run and degrading, and provided limited opportunities for skill development to prepare the patients to ultimately return to the community, this mentoring program would be considered ineffective and even unethical.
Professional ethics from the American Psychological Association also indicate that mental healthcare professionals should have adequate skills and abilities for the roles in which they portray themselves as competent. For traditional psychologists, this might involve being knowledgeable about current testing and therapy techniques. For community psychologists, who often work with community-based samples of individuals who have been marginalized or who have suffered other systemic disadvantages, it might be more complicated, as these populations warrant extra care.
For example, criminally justice-involved individuals who are exiting prison need more than aptitude tests and one-on-one therapy, as their greatest needs after leaving jail are housing and decent jobs. Community psychologists might not be trained to provide housing or jobs; however, this is where collaboration comes into play.
Community psychologists would partner with community-based organizations which have the skills and competencies to provide ex-offenders opportunities for inexpensive housing and jobs. Thus an ecological perspective, as illustrated throughout this book, would focus our efforts on providing resources and changing the environment in order to provide these vulnerable individuals with concrete opportunities to successfully transition back into society. One essential practice competency in the field of Community Psychology is dissemination.
Dissemination is the deliberate sharing of research findings to groups and communities that would benefit from said findings. Along with dissemination is implementation , which takes dissemination a step further. Implementation is the adoption of evidence-based interventions with the goal of better serving the specific population.
It is most helpful to develop a professional network in order to seek consultation and advice regarding these complex issues that are being encountered in analyzing social problems as well as implementing community-based interventions. Research evidence also informs us as to whether our efforts actually adhere to these ethical standards, and an ineffective prevention program that consumes resources e.
However, research performed as early as suggested D. The D. Without the means, resources, or system to evaluate the impact of a program, ethical concerns go unaddressed. Rather than working separately from community activists and organizations, community psychologists are trained to evaluate and conduct research with members of a community see Chapter 7; Wolfe, Other research issues endorsed by SCRA include active collaboration among researchers, practitioners, and community members.
This work is undertaken to serve those community members directly concerned, and should be guided by their needs and preferences, as well as by their active participation.
This principle is one of the core values of Community Psychology, and it is often referred to as community-based participatory research. In addition, the SCRA principles embrace multiple methodologies to best generate knowledge. These attributes are more likely to lead to many studies being conducted over an extended period of time, and the development of evidence-based practices to achieve improvements. Ethics are important in the design and performance of research. Community Psychology reduces risks by valuing the diversity of methods, encouraging collaboration and participation, seeking to serve others, and focusing on the issues needing to be addressed by the community.
The purpose or objectives of the research generally define the major elements of an investigation. Based on their goals and objectives, community psychologists develop a research design to best conduct their investigation. The basic process can be thought of as trying to achieve an objective, as well as considering what resources and sequence of activities will result in a likely success. Some of the major design elements include:. SCRA has identified five foundational competencies that underlie all areas of research, including specifying research questions, engaging in participatory community research, managing collaborations, developing community change models, and evaluating programs.
Other competencies are in areas of research design e. Qualitative methods are very useful in the early stages of defining the topic of interest and selecting measures. This type of research usually utilizes relatively small sample sizes less than 30 to allow an in-depth inquiry per individual. Thus, individual cases have significant weight. Qualitative data are usually collected through interviews, observation, or analysis of archival content. The interview may be unstructured having minimal questions or anchoring by the interviewer or structured specific topics and questions that are consistent across the sample.surgurglopuri.tk
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The content of either interviewing or observing then undergoes analysis, and this process is how insights are formed that may be more generalizable than a single narrative. Many analytic approaches are used in qualitative research. Four common methods are ethnography , phenomenology , grounded theory , and content analysis. The method used is participant observation, as shown in Figure 1, and this results in an in-depth written account of a group of people in a particular place, such as a rural area that involves migrants and farming.
Additionally, this method can also focus on an aspect of contemporary social life. As an example, a community psychologist may want to better understand the operation and benefits of a cancer survivors self-help group. Ethnography may be a good analytic approach to understanding the culture, attitudes, behaviors, and benefits that group membership signifies. Across multiple participants, common themes may emerge, but often the real insights occur from the variability and range of lived experiences within a shared context.
Grounded theory focuses on using unstructured interviews to formulate theory that emerges from the data. When no new set of ideas or theory emerges, data collection can be halted. Guidelines would suggest 10 to 25 in-depth interviews for coding. The most important perspective of grounded theory is that the data speaks for itself, and the researcher constructs theory from the interviews and without imposing their theories on the participants. This method has been most helpful in uncovering social processes, which are social relationships and behaviors of individuals in groups. Content analysis includes an array of techniques for investigating material which may be text, photographs, video, audio, etc.
The objective is to use a replicable, standardized process that reveals meaningful insights and patterns. Content analysis is can involve text analysis where computer algorithms manipulate text to extract structured information that may be interpreted. An example of content analysis is PhotoVoice. Fourteen major themes were developed after a participatory process of coding and summarizing findings.
These included opportunity to rest, privacy, opportunity to reconnect socially, and improved mental health outcomes greater hope, self-efficacy, and self-esteem. These findings were useful to researchers exploring different types of housing models for homelessness Pruitt et al.
Books and Publications - Society for Psychotherapy Research
Quantitative methods involve being able to count or quantify something. Even the simplest of quantitative studies can have great value—for example, having a population list their top ten problems and rank them may provide greater insight than having an outside researcher come in and survey the population on a researcher-priority problem.
In Case Study 6. A home visitation program was developed for at-risk low-income first-time pregnant women. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The volume describes both quantitative and qualitative approaches to data collection, providing valuable advice on methods ranging from psychometric testing to discourse analysis.
For both undergraduate and postgraduate students, the book will be essential in making them aware of the full range of techniques available, helping them to design scientifically rigorous experiments, and effectively analyse their results. This online resource discusses state-of-the-art psychotherapy research methods. Organized developmentally, it explains the conceptualization of the trial, discusses the pilot study and the Organized developmentally, it explains the conceptualization of the trial, discusses the pilot study and the large scale study, and concludes with instructions for designing a multi-site trial.
Topics specific to psychotherapy research are examined in detail, including innovations in data analysis, how to conduct multi-site psychotherapy trials, mediation of treatment outcomes, the transportability of evidence-based behavioral interventions in community practice, training community providers to be study therapists, and recruiting hard-to-reach populations.
This online resource provides a theoretical and practical background for the understanding and development of behavioural experiments, and includes information about problems which have This online resource provides a theoretical and practical background for the understanding and development of behavioural experiments, and includes information about problems which have been the traditional focus of cognitive therapy e. It also includes several chapters on trans-diagnostic problems, such as avoidance of affect, low self-esteem, interpersonal issues, and self-injurious behaviour, and finally, provides some signposts for future development.
Bipolar disorder BPD is a severe mental illness which has a substantial impact on the sufferer, carers, and mental health services. Its impact is similar to that of schizophrenia.
However, in contrast to schizophrenia, it has, until recently, been almost entirely neglected by psychological researchers. It is only in the last few years that substantial psychological research programmes in the UK and USA have begun to explore the role of psychosocial factors in the disorder. Yet an understanding of these influences will be essential for those trying to understand how we can treat those suffering from BPD.
Dance/Movement Therapy Research & Practice Committee
This volume is the first to bring together reviews of the exciting developments taking place in this field, with chapters from the leading researchers. It presents a broad overview of the psychological and psychosocial factors involved in bipolar disorder, including chapters, amongst others, on risk factors, early warning signs, and treatment.
Surgery and pharmaceuticals are not the only effective procedures we have to improve our health. The natural human tendency to care for fellow humans, to support them with social networks, The natural human tendency to care for fellow humans, to support them with social networks, has proven to be a powerful treatment as well.
As a result, the areas of application for social support intervention have expanded dramatically during the past 20 years. The title is divided into four sections. The first provides some historical context as well as a conceptual overview of how social support might influence mental and physical health.
The second discusses techniques for measuring social networks and support, and the third addresses the design of different types of support interventions. The final section presents some general comments on the volume and its implications for social support research and intervention.