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Critically important is recognizing that the use of effective instructional practices as demonstrated by research will improve achievement for all children, including those who are not minorities or children of poverty. The implementation of sound, research-based strategies that recognize the benefits of diversity can build a better future for all of us. The broad range of experiences and perspectives brought to school by culturally, linguistically, and ethnically diverse students offer a powerful resource for everyone to learn more—in different ways, in new environments, and with different types of people.

Every single person in this enormously diverse and ever-changing system has the power to serve as an invaluable resource for all others—students, teachers, and the community as a whole. Rather than constituting a problem for students and educators, the growing diversity in U. The United States is fortunate, for it includes not only immigrants but also political refugees, indigenous Americans, and descendants of people sometimes brought against their will from every continent on the globe.

This boundless diversity has resulted in the inventions, discoveries, ideas, literature, art, music, films, labor, languages, political systems, and foods that enrich American culture. These same resources also have the potential for enriching the American classroom. Immigrant students bring us opportunities to be explored and treasures to be appreciated, and they help us challenge the status quo. Adopting a truly global perspective allows us to view culturally and linguistically diverse students and their parents or guardians as resources who provide unparalleled opportunities for enrichment.

However, we need a greater repertoire of approaches to teaching and learning to cope with varied styles of learning. Teachers and students alike must cultivate interpersonal skills and respect for other cultures. The new world economy demands this global view. After all, our markets and economic competition are now global, and the skills of intercultural communication are necessary in politics, diplomacy, economics, environmental management, the arts, and other fields of human endeavor.

Surely a diverse classroom is the ideal laboratory in which to learn the multiple perspectives required by a global society and to put to use information concerning diverse cultural patterns. Students who learn to work and play collaboratively with classmates from various cultures are better prepared for the world they face now—and the world they will face in the future.

Teaching and learning strategies that draw on the social history and the everyday lives of students and their cultures can only assist this learning process. Teachers promote critical thinking when they make the rules of the classroom culture explicit and enable students to compare and contrast them with other cultures. Students can develop cross-cultural skills in culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms.

For such learning to take place, however, teachers must have the attitudes, knowledge, and skills to make their classrooms effective learning environments for all students. Given the opportunity, students can participate in learning communities within their schools and neighborhoods and be ready to assume constructive roles as workers, family members, and citizens in a global society. Zeichner has summarized the extensive literature that describes successful teaching approaches for diverse populations. From his review, he distilled 12 key elements for effective teaching for ethnic- and language-minority students.

Teachers have a clear sense of their own ethnic and cultural identities. Teachers communicate high expectations for the success of all students and a belief that all students can succeed. Teachers are personally committed to achieving equity for all students and believe that they are capable of making a difference in their students' learning. Teachers have developed a bond with their students and cease seeing their students as "the other. Instruction focuses on students' creation of meaning about content in an interactive and collaborative learning environment.

Teachers help students see learning tasks as meaningful. Curricula include the contributions and perspectives of the different ethnocultural groups that compose the society. Teachers provide a "scaffolding" that links the academically challenging curriculum to the cultural resources that students bring to school.

Teachers explicitly teach students the culture of the school and seek to maintain students' sense of ethnocultural pride and identity. Community members and parents or guardians are encouraged to become involved in students' education and are given a significant voice in making important school decisions related to programs such as resources and staffing. Teachers are involved in political struggles outside the classroom that are aimed at achieving a more just and humane society.

For the sake of clarity, this chapter breaks the teaching strategies into two main sections. The first section, "Strategies for Culturally and Ethnically Diverse Students," contains strategies appropriate for children whose primary language may or may not be English. The second section, "Strategies for Linguistically Diverse Students," contains strategies that specifically address the unique needs of learners of English as a second language.

Each strategy includes a brief discussion of the strategy as well as examples of the strategy in use. Resources at the end of each entry allow the reader to explore additional information and resources. Generally, U. For example, poor children and culturally and linguistically diverse students tend to receive inferior instruction because they are usually placed in the bottom reading groups or sent out of the classroom for remedial instruction. Still other studies demonstrate that many teachers fail to communicate effectively with students from diverse backgrounds; typical and hard to change instructional procedures often violate the behavior norms of these students' home cultures Au, ; Cazden, ; Delpit, ; Heath, ; Ogbu, Also, teachers may have low expectations for students of diverse backgrounds and thus fail to present them with challenging and interesting lessons.

Schools have control over some factors but not others. If teachers understand these factors and their effects on young people who are newly arrived in the United States, they will be better able to assess their needs and strengths and find innovative ways of helping them adjust to their new schools and to life in a new culture.

Some of these critical factors and their effects include the following issues. The level of the family's socioeconomic resources is associated with success in school but is conditioned by other factors, such as immigrant status. Prior education in the country of origin is associated with success in school. The age of entrance into the United States affects success in the English language, as well as other academic areas, but the degree of success is also conditioned by literacy in the home language. Those children who enter the United States before puberty will have an advantage in school.

The longer the length of the stay in the United States, the greater the success in school. Unfortunately, this effect is offset by a reduction of motivation that comes through acculturation into the American society. Intact family and home support systems are associated with success in school. Not surprisingly, unaccompanied minors and students from single-parent families are at greater risk of failure in school. In this context, it is important to understand how we define various ethnic groups see "Major U.

Ethnic Groups," p. For example, Asian Americans are often viewed incorrectly as a single ethnic group. There are, however, many distinct subgroups of Asian Americans, each with its own culture, religion, and unique perspective. Generalization across such subgroups can lead to misperceptions and a failure to recognize and address specific concerns and needs. It is also important to understand that the overall descriptor "Southeast Asian" generally refers to those who report their own ethnic identity as Vietnamese, Laotian, Cambodian, or Hmong.

The recent tendency to stereotype Asians as "high achievers" may mask significant and unique educational challenges and needs. Similarly, Hispanics or Latinos are also composed of many distinct subgroups. Although the U. Census Bureau classifies all Spanish-speaking peoples under the general heading "Hispanic origin," this term includes all persons who identify themselves as members of families from Mexico, Central and Spanish-speaking South America, the Spanish-speaking Caribbean islands, or Spain.

Furthermore, people of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Finally, it is important to be aware that agencies dealing with population data refer to Alaskan Natives or American Indians as one group, even though the customs, languages, and cultures of the many tribes and nations of these two groups are vastly different. Major U. Ethnic Groups The U. African Americans or blacks refers to those of African ancestry who may have lived for generations in the United States.

American Indians , also called Native Americans, were the original populations of North America before the arrival of the Spaniards, who were followed by the English, French, and other Europeans. American Indian groups often prefer to be called by their tribal affiliation or the nation to which they belong i. Asian Americans include all national-origin groups from Asia, some of whom come from technologically advanced countries like Japan. Others come from countries where some of the population have access to advanced technology and others do not, such as Korea, China, Vietnam, and India.

Hispanics also include descendants from Spain, while Latinos are those from the Americas living in the United States. People of Mexican descent are the largest Hispanic group in the United States, and many prefer to be called by their specific national origin such as Mexican American. Others may prefer terms they call themselves such as Chicanos.

Considerable evidence supports this crucial conclusion: the differences in achievement observed between and among students of culturally and ethnically diverse backgrounds and students of mainstream backgrounds are not the result of differences in ability to learn. Rather, they are the result of differences in the quality of the instruction these young people have received in school. Moreover, many students who are at risk of failure in U. A multitude of complex factors contribute to students' at-risk status; many of these factors—crime, drugs, and poverty, among others—are beyond the control of educators.

But educators do have the power to replace ineffective instructional practices. The strategies that follow have been demonstrated to be effective in increasing student achievement. Strategy 2. Teachers who express high expectations convey the belief that their students have the ability to succeed in demanding activities. Such teachers avoid repetitive rote learning; instead, they involve young people in novel problem-solving activities. They ask open-ended questions requiring students to use their judgment and form opinions.

They choose activities where students must use analytic skills, evaluate, and make connections. They expect students to conduct research, complete their homework, and manage their time effectively. Now that detracking and accelerated learning with support have been shown to be effective, teachers can confidently advocate for them. Hugh Mehan , p. According to Mehan , research has shown that the schools' practice of tracking neither provides students with equal educational opportunities nor serves the needs of employers for a well-educated workforce.

Students from low-income and ethnic or linguistic minority backgrounds are disproportionately represented in low-track classes and they seldom move up to high-track classes. Students placed in low-track classes seldom receive the educational resources that are equivalent to students who are placed in high-track classes. They often suffer the stigmatizing consequences of negative labeling. They are not prepared well for careers or college. In an attempt to provide greater educational equity, educators in California schools have been trying an alternative to tracking since the s.

In San Diego, one such program— Achievement Via Individual Determination AVID —has revamped the curriculum, course structures, and pedagogical strategies into "multiple pathways" to college and career so that students are better prepared and have more options when they complete high school. AVID "untracks" low-achieving ethnic and language-minority students by placing both low- and high-achieving students in the same rigorous academic program.

Students are taught explicitly how to study, how to work with teachers, and how to write college applications. These are skills often passed on by parents who have attended college, but they must be taught to students whose parents lack this form of "cultural capital. From to , 94 percent of AVID students enrolled in college, compared to 56 percent of all high school graduates. Jaime Escalante captured media attention with his success in teaching calculus to Hispanic students.

His high expectations for his students and their subsequent accomplishments were the subject of the film Stand and Deliver. Yet many teachers who will never be the subject of a Hollywood film have inspired and guided pupil achievement. When teachers believe that students can learn, they communicate these expectations explicitly, thus encouraging young people, and they also spend more time creating challenging activities. They ask higher-order questions that require not only identification and categorization but also comprehension and analysis, application to other situations, synthesis, and value judgments.

Heath and McLaughlin have found that one of the reasons for the effectiveness of after-school youth programs organized by community-based organizations is that staff members, often operating on a shoestring budget, depend on students to take some of the responsibility for activities. Young people plan, teach others, and perform a variety of tasks vital to the program. When students are brought into the planning and become coaches for others, they are given "adult" responsibilities and challenges; everyone must be able to depend on everyone else to show up on time and do his or her part.

In addition, involving students in the financial aspects of such operations whether by fundraising or making requests of foundations fosters involvement, responsibility, and the learning of math skills. Students acquire social skills along with communication and performance skills. In such collaborative work, diversity of skills is seen as a resource for the entire group; everyone brings something different to the table. When journal writing is a required part of students' group responsibilities, they reflect on what they are learning, practice writing skills, and keep the staff informed of their individual progress and well-being.

Students tend to want to participate and do their best when a teacher is nurturing and caring. Nel Noddings advocates that when society around us concentrates on materialistic messages, "we should care more genuinely for our children and teach them to care" p. Of course we want academic achievement for our students, she notes, but "we will not achieve even that unless our children believe they themselves are cared for and learn to care for others" p. Noddings describes a practice called "looping," where teachers stay with the same group of students for two or more years. By following the same group of students for two or more years, teachers get to know their students' needs and strengths better; trust develops between teacher and students and among classmates.

Looping also offers teachers the opportunity to provide more differentiated instruction, even tailoring lessons to individual children. Noddings's definition of caring "implies a continuous search for competence. Noddings suggests using integrated curricular themes to teach caring to students. In the domain of "caring for self" we might consider life stages, spiritual growth, and what it means to develop an admirable character; in exploring caring for intimate others, we might include units on love, friendship, and parenting; under caring for strangers and global others, we might study war, poverty, and tolerance.

Younger students also get excited when they learn that they can care for the environment through recycling projects, joining others in cleaning and beautifying local parks, starting a community garden, or planting a tree. These themes could be adapted for students from elementary school through high school. In addition, Noddings suggests alternative methods of staff organization in schools. Elementary students would benefit from having the continuity of the same teacher or a stable group of specialists for two or more years.

Even at the high school level, students might benefit if their teacher taught two subjects to the same 30 students rather than one subject to 60 different students. By learning the strengths and challenges each student faces, teachers can refer children and their families to community-based organizations that provide after-school homework help and programs in sports and the arts.

High-performing schools also tend to have systems in place to provide extra help for struggling learners or high-achieving students taking challenging coursework Viadero, , according to the NCEA's Just for the Kids Best Practices Studies and Institutes: Findings from 20 States. Teachers need support in this work. Developing communities of teachers focused on student work was another practice cited by the NCEA. Successful schools accomplish goals through collaboration. The teachers in one Selma, California, high school hold "focus lesson meetings" in which educators from different disciplines meet and give feedback on one teacher's lesson plan, then try out the revision in one of their classes and give further feedback.

Others have "scoring parties" to develop common ideas about what constitutes high-quality student work. Educators must understand and respect the many different ways of being a parent and expressing concern about the education of one's children. For example, Gibson , reports that Punjabi immigrant parents in California believe it is the teacher's task to educate and that parents should not be involved in what goes on at school. Punjabi parents support their children's education by requiring that homework be done and ensuring that their youngsters do not "hang out" with other students but instead apply themselves to schoolwork.

Even though the parents themselves may be forced to take more than one job, they do not allow their children to work so that they have time to complete their homework. As a result, Punjabi students as a group have higher rates of graduation and college acceptance than other immigrant groups. Parental involvement is well established as being correlated with student academic achievement Epstein, Valenzuela and Dornbusch challenge "the dominant myth that academic achievement is obstructed by collective orientations.

They suggested that when young people have relatives who have attended a U. Also, being part of a dense social network of relatives enhances the opportunity for "multiple alternatives for academic support. Seek information about students' home cultures by asking them to interview their parents about their lives as children, the stories they remember, favorite poems, and family recipes.

The results of these interviews can inform the teacher about the rich diversity in his or her classroom. The interviews also can be made into booklets and, subsequently, reading materials for the entire class to share. Parent-teacher organizations can hold meetings at times convenient for parents to attend, and they can provide translators for those who do not speak English. A room in the school can be set aside for parents to meet and to discuss issues concerning their children's education or the school community.

Teachers can visit parents in their homes, or they can use parent-teacher meetings as a time to discuss homework and discipline. Parents who are welcomed into the school in ways that are culturally appropriate for them become more accessible both as resources and as learners. Immigrant parents can learn both English as a second language ESL and survival skills for their new culture. Parents who are bilingual may be asked to translate for those who have not yet achieved fluency in a new language. Parents who attend workshops can learn family literacy and math activities that enhance their own abilities to support their children's learning of these skills.

When students see that their parents are respected by the school, there may be less of the conflict between home and school cultures that can cause a breakdown of discipline within the family. Parents and guardians are a child's first teachers, but they are not always aware of the ways in which they mold children's language development and communication skills. Children learn their language at home; the more interaction and communication they have at home, the more children learn.

Teachers can support this crucial role by sharing information about the link between home communication and children's learning. For example, teachers can act as "culture brokers" by talking with parents to emphasize the key role they play in their children's education. Teachers can assist parents in understanding the expectations of the school and their classroom as they elicit from parents their own expectations of teachers and students.

Teachers also can suggest ways in which parents might converse more often with their children to prepare them for communication in the classroom. Parents may not be aware of how they support their children's academic efforts when they discuss the importance of education and take them to informal educational resources in the community.

Teachers play an enormously important role in referring parents to community resources such as children's museums, art and science museums, and community-based organizations that offer homework help and arts and sports programs. Children learn the importance of language in expressing ideas, feelings, and requests if parents or guardians respond to them and acknowledge their thoughts. Children also need guidance in learning patterns of communication that are necessary in the classroom, including how to make a request, ask a question, and respond to a question.

If parents or guardians are literate in any language, they can read to their children in that language to encourage reading for pleasure and to help children begin to make the connection between oral language and reading. Even if parents or guardians are not literate, they can use wordless books or create prose as they hold their children and "read" with them.

Even the simplest evidence of caring about the importance of literacy pays huge dividends in a young person's schooling. Parents or guardians can take time to talk with their children about any activity they are doing together—eating a meal, for example—thereby encouraging language development. These conversations between parent and child are beneficial whether they are in the home language or in English. Parents or guardians can ask their children questions about whatever activity they are engaged in and how it relates to another activity, as well as ask how they feel about the activity or what they predict may happen next.

They are thus modeling the kinds of communication patterns that young people will use in school. At the same time, of course, simply giving children the gift of attention pays huge dividends. Programs in family literacy can help parents acquire or strengthen their own literacy skills, making them better able to assist their children's development of literacy. Other techniques, such as the use of recorded books, allow adults and children to learn reading skills together. Children are encouraged to read when they see their parents reading and have their parents read to them. Quite simply, reading for fun encourages more reading.

Their materials assist with parent involvement in schools; their website includes summaries of research on family involvement. For example, NNPS studies Epstein, showed that through high school, family involvement contributed to positive results for students, including higher achievement, better attendance, more course credits earned, more responsible preparation for class, and other indicators of success in school Catsambis, ; Simon, Catsambis and Beveridge analyses indicated that students in neighborhoods with high concentrations of poverty had lower math achievement test scores, but this effect was ameliorated by on-going parental involvement in high school.

NNPS studies at the high school level indicated that it is never too late to initiate programs of family and community involvement, as the benefits accrue through grade Similarly, Sheldon and Epstein b found that when teachers involve families in subject-specific interventions in reading and related language arts, "students' reading skills and scores are positively affected" cited in Epstein, , p.

Moreover, NNPS studies found "significant results of subject-specific family involvement [in homework] for students' science report card grades and homework completion" cited in Epstein, , p. Students' self-esteem and motivation are enhanced when teachers elicit their experiences in classroom discussions and validate what they have to say. Young people become more engaged in lessons when they are brought into the initial dialogue by being asked what they know about the topic and what they want to know.

If their questions are written down and used to form a guide for inquiry into the topic, students are far more likely to be interested in doing further research than if the questions simply come out of a text. The teacher also obtains a better understanding of students' previous knowledge about a subject—a pre-assessment, as it were—that can guide the planning of the subsequent lesson.

One way in which teachers can ensure recognition of students' contributions is to use "semantic webbing. For example, the teacher or one of the students might put the topic "culture" in a center circle on the chalkboard. Then, the recorder notes students' associations in circles around the center circle. As a next step, the class can discuss and connect with lines all the related aspects of "culture," making a web of relationships on the board. This work can be expanded by categorizing the subtopics. The teacher also can ask students what they want to know about the topic at hand.

Students' questions, recorded for later use, can serve as guides for research. Students are more likely to be interested in researching a topic when they begin with their own real questions. Those real questions lead them on an ever-widening path of investigation. Implementing this strategy can be as simple as asking children to voice their questions about a given topic at the beginning of a lesson.

After gathering student questions, the teacher can ask whether any student already has information about the topic. Before drawing on books and other resources, the students themselves can be resources by using their own knowledge and prior experiences.

Students' self-esteem is strengthened when they see and read about the contributions made by their own racial or ethnic groups to the history and culture of the United States. Whenever possible, teachers adapt the curriculum to focus lessons on topics that are meaningful to students. This kind of focus allows students to practice language, thinking, reading, and writing skills in real, meaningful, and interactive situations.

Students also come to realize that teachers value and appreciate each child's culture and language. Teachers can select texts or, if necessary, supplementary materials such as children's literature written by a variety of authors that incorporate the perspectives, voices, historical events, poetry, artwork, journals, and illustrations of the range of racial and ethnic groups that make up U.

Teachers can ask students to interview their parents about their history, including their culture, poetry, music, recipes, novels, and heroes. The student can videotape, audiotape, or write the interview and share it with the rest of the class. In interviews conducted by the Latino Commission Rodriguez, , high school students observed that they feel left out when the curriculum of the school contains nothing that relates to their own culture. Conversely, they feel that both they and their culture are valued when their culture is included in the curriculum.

For younger students, children's books about young people in their own cultural context can provide avenues for discussion and comparison of the similarities and differences between the culture of their parents and that of the school or community in which they now live. If the teacher allows sexist or racist language and stereotypes to pass unchallenged, students will be harmed in two ways: 1 by the demeaning depiction of their group, which may become part of their self-concept and 2 by the limitations they will feel on their ability to live and work harmoniously with others in their classroom and in their society.

Teachers can select texts or supplementary materials to address the issue of stereotyping. The supplementary materials should be written by a variety of authors who incorporate a wide range of perspectives on historical events, poetry, artwork, journals, music, and illustrations of women and men, as well as varied ethnic and racial groups. Teachers also can point out sexist language and ethnic, racial, or gender stereotypes in everyday instructional materials. Weis and Fine have documented the development of a sense of community and the contesting of stereotypes across the usual boundaries of race, class, and gender in two different school situations.

In the first, racial and class stereotypes dissolved in a 9th grade literature class guided by two teachers in a racially integrated public school in Montclair, New Jersey. The school has a range of socioeconomic groups, from those living in conditions of extreme wealth to those living in conditions of dire poverty.

The school is tracked academically, but the world literature class documented by Michelle Fine was detracked. The teachers asked questions that demanded taking a position and defending it. Students also were asked to develop a new perspective by getting inside the minds and emotions of the literary characters being studied and saying what they might say. Teachers guided the students over the semester as they developed a new consciousness of the range of abilities of their classmates, irrespective of race.

Weis and Fine also documented an abstinence program among 8th grade girls in the Arts Academy, an urban magnet school in Buffalo, New York. The students differed only in racial identity; all lived in conditions of poverty. However, they developed an identity as a group and distanced themselves from others of their same background who were taking a different path that they saw as unproductive hanging around men, smoking and drinking, and becoming pregnant at an early age.

The group came to see that they shared common problems and could share solutions across racial lines. Through the facilitation of a staff member from the gender-based prevention outreach service Womanfocus, invited by the school guidance counselor, these girls came to share many aspects of their personal lives over the course of the semester. Supporting one another, they planned to graduate from high school, go on to college, and succeed. In doing so, they contested the notions of femininity, victimhood, and race prevailing in their neighborhoods. The American South AMH 3 credits A survey of the region from the colonial period through the modern era emphasizing the interaction between the South as a distinct region and the South as an inescapable part of the United States.

The focus of the course is on the economic, political and social changes that shaped Southern culture. History of Florida AMH 3 credits A study of the history of the state from the time of the Spanish conquest to the present day. Work and Workers in U.

History AMH 3 credits Work is fundamental to the experiences of most people.

However, the nature of the work, the arrangement of labor and the experiences of those who do the work have all been historically contingent. This course explores work as a historical development in American history, from the earliest days to the present.

History of American Immigration and Ethnicity AMH 3 credits An overview of the history of immigration to the United States and of the immigrant and ethnic experience in American society from colonial times to the present. History of U. Topics include work patterns, family life, education, the abolitionist and suffrage movements and feminism. Emphasis placed on African origins, the slave trade, colonial and antebellum slavery, origins of African-American culture, abolitionist movement, the Civil War and Reconstruction.

Emphasis placed on the goals of Reconstruction, segregation and Jim Crow, the development of Black organizations, Black Nationalism, the Civil Rights and Black Power Movements, and contemporary issues facing the African-American community. American Environmental History AMH 3 credits History of the American Environment and the ways in which different cultural groups have perceived, used, managed, and conserved it, from colonial times to present.

This course explains how colonists settled and missionaries advanced, how some Indians welcomed them and others pushed back, and how fortunes grew and empires went to war. Prologue to the United States. The American Revolution AMH 3 credits This course investigates the history of the revolution from the colonial struggles of the Seven Years' War to the organization of the Early Republic, including not only the acts of generals and politicians but also the experiences and decisions of common people as they shaped the United States.

The Age of Jefferson and Jackson AMH 3 credits A study of the early national period emphasizing the relationship between the economy and the political culture and how that relationship served to shape early 19th- century society and culture. Civil War and Reconstruction AMH 3 credits A study of the American Civil War and Reconstruction period assessing the causes of the war, the military aspects and the reconstruction following the war.

Surveys the transformation of American politics, economics, society and culture in this era of immense change. Charts the rise of the United States as a world power. America in the s AMH 3 credits This course examines the economic, political, social, and cultural transformation of America in the s.

American Material Culture to AMH 3 credits A study of the physical aspects of American life: architecture, ceramics, clothing, art, etc. American Material Culture from AMH 3 credits A study of the physical aspects of American life: lighting, domestic appliances, clothing, television, etc. Social History of Early America AMH 3 credits Students read the words of historical actors as they sought to make sense of their lives and times in their autobiographies.

The diverse themes explored in this course encompass slavery, transatlantic travel, religion, class, labor, and gender. The course begins with 16thth century Native American accounts and ends with Civil War memoirs by former slaves. Drug and Alcohol Use AMH 3 credits Course follows patterns of the use of both alcohol and drugs from the 19th through 21st century and the problems and issues they have raised. Topics covered include the origin of the Temperance movement; the role of tobacco in the economic growth of the U.

American Politics since AMH 3 credits The origin and growth of national parties and the history of party struggles with emphasis upon presidential elections.

At the household level, ordinary residents then sought to improve their standard of living through shopping, travel, and leisure. Urban History of the United State AMH 3 credits The rise of urban culture from the colonial village to the present-day metropolis. Diplomatic History of the U. AMH 3 credits Emphasis on how America's development influences its world outlook. Law in U. History AMH 3 credits Course addresses major themes in the history of law in the area that became the United States from the foundations of English common law to the legal shifts of the period after the Civil War.

Course considers the relationship between law and culture. Students will study black leaders; their organizations; and the legal strategies, mainstream protest movements, and alternative or radical approaches they applied to solving the dilemmas of chronic discrimination and racism in 20th-century America. An ethnohistorical approach will be utilized in which Indian cultures are viewed as dynamic entities responding to changing conditions through contact with Euroamericans. The class shows how sports are a microcosm of American society and reflects the positives and negatives of America's legacy.

Religion in America AMH 3 credits A history of American religious thought from the colonial period to the present, focusing on religious diversity, liberty, identity and politics. America and the Sea AMH 3 credits This course explores the maritime history of the United States from precolonial times to the present. Topics include the history of seafaring, maritime commerce, coastal history, and the environmental, social and cultural histories of America's relationship with the sea. Course ranges from the rise of Islam to the height of Ottoman power in the 17th century.

Focus is on methods of rule, cultural syncretism and Islamic thought. The Modern Middle East ASH 3 credits The second course in a two-part series, where the emphasis will be on the development of the modern Middle East, including Arab nationalism, Arab-Israeli conflict, Islamist movements, and Western involvement in the religion.

Areas to be addressed include: origins of Turks in region; rise of Ottoman and their expansion; Ottoman society and culture; methods of succession; relations with external powers East and West ; decline factors; dissolution of empire. Historiographical issues to be addressed throughout course. Selective topics will include religious beliefs, political systems, women's work, ideologies shaping popular notions about women, sexuality, the roles of women in the family, feminism, patriarchy, imperialism, revolution, and nationalism.

Focus will be placed on the concepts surrounding the holy war, European sentiments, the events of the 11th- to 13th-century Crusades, Muslim society, and reaction at the time as well as the effects of the Crusades for Europe and the Islamic lands. Modern Iran ASH 3 credits Course covers the history of Iran from the pre-modern Safavid period to the post-Khomeini period of the last 20th century.

Although the survey nature of the course includes a chronological path, it moves beyond the political narrative to address cultural, social, and religious developments Constitutional Revolution, s revolution, post-Khomeini Iran. History of Modern India ASH 3 credits Consideration of the Indian Mutiny; British institutions in India; Nationalism; Hindu-Muslim communalism; partition; government and politics; economic and cultural development; and foreign policy since independence.

Areas of concentration will include the Hindu state, society and religion. Covers the main three schools of thought in China, namely Confucianism, Daoism and Buddhism.

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These three schools are critical for understanding East Asia both as a historical phenomenon and as a part of our modern world. There are billion Buddhists in the world today, mostly in Asia, but they do have a significant presence on every continent. The course covers the origin and development of Buddhism as well as the current state of the religion. Islamic Intellectual History ASH 3 credits Course covers the development of Muslim thought from the Medieval to the Modern Period, touching on such topics as the tenets of faith, law, theology, philosophy, historiography, and Islamic mysticism.

The final section of the course deals with developments and changes in Muslim thought during the Modern Era. Primary emphasis is on examples of interaction from multiple perspectives to understand modes of interaction and historical patterns of globalization. Emphasis will be placed on the conflict of ideologies. Economic trends, social and cultural movements and religious issues will complement a study of major political developments. Underlying themes and their impact across time are stressed.

Emphasis will be placed on the period beginning with the close of the Napoleonic Wars to the present. Women in European History EUH 3 credits Course looks at reasons why women were written out of history and examines the social, political and economic roles played by women in Europe from the beginning of known civilization to the present. Medieval History EUH 3 credits The decline of the Roman Empire; the rise of Christianity; analysis of feudalism and manorialism; the economic revival; and the origins of Western Society.

Early Modern Europe EUH 3 credits History of Europe between and , including creation of modern states system, rise and fall of absolutism in France, scientific and Enlightenment culture, constitutional conflict in England, and imperial rivalries and wars, focusing on the various perspectives of class and gender.

Themes will include the rise of liberalism, conservatism, nationalism, and socialism, the social and economic impact of the industrial revolution, the "new" imperialism, and developments in the arts and sciences. Hitler and Nazi Germany EUH 3 credits After a brief survey of German history from early times to , course focuses on Hitler's rise to power, the politics and policies of the Nazi regime, the road to world war, the Holocaust and the Nazi legacy.

Medieval England EUH 3 credits Consideration of the political, constitutional and institutional development of England from the 5th century to Modern Britain EUH 3 credits Industrialization: the English historical model; critiques of society; political reform; the emergence of the welfare state; empire and commonwealth; the British and the origins of the two World Wars. Tudor-Stuart England EUH 3 credits England from to including constitutional development, popular and elite culture, religious change, civil wars, revolution, economic crisis, commercial expansion, and international relations.

Topics include motives for acquisition, theories of imperialism, transfer of ideas and institutions, histories of Australia, New Zealand, India, Canada and British Africa. Modern Ireland EUH 3 credits Provides students with a comprehensive survey of modern Irish history since with a focus on the period and an emphasis on political and social developments.

History of European Sexuality EUH 3 credits Introduces students to the latest scholarship on the role of sexual desire in the cultural development of Europe and how associated ideas also impacted politics, society, economics and religion. The focus is on historical inquiry and the production of clear, effective written prose. As such, it acts as an official substitute for ENC Topics in Historical Investigation HIS 3 credits In-depth study of a particular historical problem, period, or event through lectures, discussions of readings, and writing assignments. Includes museum work, preservation activities, public and private.

Students conduct original research of libraries and digital collections, survey major historiographical trends and write a lengthy final research paper based on primary sources. This is a research-intensive RI course. History of Human Rights HIS 3 credits This course explores how people have defined human rights and have sought to protect them in different historical periods and cultural contexts from the ancient period through to the present. Using historical documents from a variety of cultures and time periods, the question, "What are human rights?

History of Christianity to HIS 3 credits History of the Christian church from origins in the Roman Empire to the dawn of the Reformation, with emphasis on heresy, persecution, doctrinal development, missionary movements, popular piety, and sectarianism. History of Christianity since HIS 3 credits History of the Christian church from the Reformation to the present, with emphasis on Protestant and Catholic reform movements, religious strife and persecution, confessionalism, worldwide growth, secularization, theological developments, and responses to modernity.

The course develops students' fundamental skills in critical and global thinking and in comparative analysis. It also develops their understanding of the interaction of race, ethnicity, gender, class, age, and technology. History of Western Ideas HIS 3 credits Basic themes in Western philosophical, literary, scientific and artistic history since the 18th century are studied, together with their cultural background. The impact of ideas on each other and on human progress in the last two centuries is emphasized.

Religion in the Atlantic World HIS 3 credits Course covers the history of the major world religions' impact on the Atlantic World from the 15th century to the 19th century. Students study how the major world religions were introduced to the New World and the impact this introduction had both on the indigenous inhabitants and the Old World colonizers. Magic and Superstition in the Atlantic World HIS 3 credits This course traces the changing roles and understandings of magic in European culture, religion, politics and science from the late Middle Ages to the modern day.

Slavery and Abolition in the Americas HIS 3 credits The rise and defeat of racial slavery in the Americas is a global story that is foundational to the American experience. Students explore connections between Africa, the United States, the Caribbean and Latin America, and study documents that illuminate lives of enslaved peoples.

Directed Independent Study HIS credits Prerequisite: Permission of instructor Reading and research in a field of history, with program of study selected and reviewed in consultation with Department faculty members. Students discuss in-depth readings on the historical theme, present their preliminary research findings to the class and produce a lengthy research paper. Internship in Public History HIS credits Prerequisite: HIS or permission of instructor Practicum in public history involving service at local museums, historical societies, and preservation agencies.

Latin American Independence LAH 3 credits The history of Latin America from until , including the causes of the independence movements, the wars for independence, and the ensuing political conflicts. Major problems facing the region are studied in their historical context. Course also analyzes how Indians and Africans shaped the formation of New World religions and cultural traditions since Focuses on the political, economic, and social history of the country.

History of the Caribbean LAH 3 credits The study of the historical development of the Caribbean-Gulf of Mexico cultural area from earliest times to the present. Emphasis is on Hispanic legacy and the region's strategic importance since the 18th century. Students explore the nature of religion and the diversity thatexists among and within different religious traditions.

Focus on increasing world interconnections and interdependency. Themes include world wars. Aspects explored will include the military, diplomatic, social, and economic dimensions. Revolution and Resistance in the Atlantic World WOH 3 credits This course examines social revolutions, peasant rebellions, and other strategies of resistance used by the poor in Latin America and Europe.

Readings include social and political theory as well as historical readings on the French, Haitian, Mexican, Russian, and Cuban revolutions. It is structured as a seminar, requiring that students engage in active discussion and a significant amount of writing. Some background in history is recommended. It explores biographical details, historical contexts, challenges, writings, approaches to problem-solving, leadership, goals, relations with their followers and opponents, and their legacies.

History Graduate Courses. Readings in Florida History AMH 3 credits Prerequisite: Admission to graduate history program or permission of instructor Readings on selected topics in the field of Florida history. Readings in American History AMH 3 credits Prerequisite: Admission to graduate history program or permission of instructor Readings on selected topics and problems in United States history. Seminar in Florida History AMH 3 credits Prerequisite: Admission to graduate history program or permission of instructor Group discussion and individual research on selected topics.

Seminar in United States History AMH 3 credits Prerequisite: Admission to graduate history program or permission of instructor Group discussion and individual research on selected topics. Readings in European History EUH 3 credits Prerequisite: Admission to graduate history program or permission of instructor Readings on selected topics in a field or fields of European history. Seminar in European History EUH 3 credits Prerequisite: Admission to graduate history program or permission of instructor Group discussion and individual research on selected topics.

The Historical Experience HIS 3 credits Prerequisite: Admission to graduate history program or permission of instructor A seminar designed to introduce the beginning graduate student to the technical aspects of the study of history; it treats the problems involved in the preparation of the master's thesis.

Readings in Public History HIS 3 credits Prerequisite: Admission to graduate history program or permission of instructor Readings on selected topics in the field of public history. Readings in Comparative History HIS 3 credits Prerequisite: Admission to graduate history program or permission of instructor Readings in selected topics in comparative history. Internship in Public History HIS credits Prerequisite: Permission of instructor Practicum in public history involving service at local museums, historical societies, and preservation agencies. This course is designed to help graduate assistants develop their skills as discussion leaders in introductory courses in which a faculty member has responsibility for course organization and lectures.

Directed Independent Study HIS credits Reading and research in a field of history, with a program of study selected and reviewed in consultation with the Department faculty members. Permission of instructor is required. The course may be repeated for credit. Seminar in Comparative History HIS 3 credits Prerequisite: Admission to graduate history program or permission of instructor Group discussion and individual research on selected topics.

Readings in Latin American History LAH 3 credits Prerequisite: Admission to graduate history program or permission of instructor Readings on selected topics in a field or fields of Latin American history. Seminar in Latin American History LAH 3 credits Prerequisite: Admission to graduate history program or permission of instructor Group discussion and individual research on selected topics.

Readings in World History WOH 3 credits Prerequisite: Admission to graduate history program or permission of instructor Readings on selected topics in a field or fields of non-Western history. Seminar in World History WOH 3 credits P rerequisite: Admission to graduate history program or permission of instructor Selected topics and problems.

Honors Undergraduate Courses. May be taken for repeated credit. Humanities Undergraduate Course. Cooperative Education - Humanities HUM credits Course may be taken up to four times for a maximum of 8 credits. Interdisciplinary Studies: Arts and Humanities and Social Science Many courses for these majors are listed previously in this section; these courses draw from several departments in the Dorothy F. Schmidt College of Arts and Letters. Other interdisciplinary courses are listed below.

Interdisciplinary Studies Seminar IDS 3 credits Prerequisite: For Interdisciplinary Studies majors only A capstone course for Interdisciplinary Studies majors with a focus on 1 reflection, 2 job market or further education preparation and 3 citizenship and civic mindedness. Students develop marketable skills in preparation for future employment or graduate school studies. Directed Independent Study IDS credits Prerequisite: Permission of instructor This is an open-enrollment independent study to be used to cover subject matter suitable for independent study but not currently offered by the various colleges.

Liberal Studies Colloquium IDS credits A colloquium discussing knowledge and methods in the Arts and Sciences with frequent guest lectures by colleagues from the various disciplines within the University and culminating in the essay or project on a Liberal Arts theme. Special Topics IDS credits This is an open-enrollment special topics course used to cover special subject matters not presently offered by the various colleges.

Introduction to Peace Studies PAX 3 credits Provides an overview and in-depth analysis, from varying perspectives, of the conceptual and theoretical framework of modern peace. Advanced Research Project in Peace Studies PAX credits Prerequisite: PAX This advanced research project provides students with an opportunity to explore, in depth, any aspect of peace studies while working with a faculty member.

Jewish Literature Through the Centuries JST 3 credits Surveys Jewish literature from the Bible to recent times, providing a sense of its range and richness in different centuries and cultures. Course reviews literary technique in prose and poetry as well as analyzes how texts express religious, cultural, and political meaning. Modern Jewish Civilization JST 3 credits A survey of Jewish history, religion, and culture from the beginning of Jewish Emancipation in the late s to issues of the 21st century.

Topics include the development of denominationalism, modern Antisemitism, Zionism and the state of Israel, the Holocaust, American Jewish life, and the rebirth of Jewish mysticism. Areas of inquiry will include Jewish metaphysics, theology, ethics, mysticism, and gender politics.

The Dead Sea Scrolls JST 3 credits Offers a close reading of the content of the scrolls found in the Judean desert and highlights their relevance for the period in which they were written as well as their implications for the Bible and the histories of Judaism and Christianity. The Jews of Spain and the Middle East JST 3 credits The geography, history, culture, languages, literature, and emigration patterns of the Jews who originated in medieval Spain and spread throughout the Mediterranean Basin, including Greece, Turkey, and the Balkan peninsula, living under the religious and legal influences of Islam.

Ancient Israel JST 3 credits The history of ancient Israel during the Old Testament period, including its culture and religion, in the light of archaeological discoveries. History of Zionism and the State of Israel, JST 3 credits An in-depth examination of the modern State of Israel and its development from the birth of modern Zionism to the end of the 20th century. Course covers how wider historical events shaped Jewish history and how Jewish thought and daily life varied with time and place.

Women and Judaism JST 3 credits The first part of this course surveys the history of women in Judaism from Biblical times, considering social and religious factors. The second part covers women in Judaism in the 20th and 21st centuries, including both feminist theory and the different perspectives of many individual women. The Holocaust JST 3 credits An in-depth study of the Holocaust from its political, religious, and ideological roots in Antisemitism through the Nazi Final Solution to post-Holocaust issues of ethics, theology, and moral choice.

Image of Woman in the Bible REL 3 credits The role and treatment of femininity in the Bible, with particular emphasis on the Old Testament Hebrew Bible including a variety of contemporary approaches and concerns. Jewish Studies Graduate Courses. Languages, Linguistics, and Comparative Literature Students should direct questions concerning the University Foreign Language requirement and placement in language courses to the Chair of the Department of Languages, Linguistics, and Comparative Literature.

The Department enforces a non-audit policy in its language courses. For students with little or no experience in the language. Not open to native speakers or the equivalent. Practice in reading and writing. For students with some experience in the language. Intermediate Arabic Language and Culture 2 ARA 4 credits Prerequisite: ARA or permission of instructor Continuation of emphasis on communication skills with special attention to grammar review.

Classical Greek Literature CLT 3 credits Writing Across Curriculum Gordon Rule Classical Greek epic, drama, and poetry, their types and characteristics, the cultural contexts of the writers and audiences, and the crucial position these works occupy. Classical Mythology CLT 3 credits Course examines major myths from Greek and Roman antiquity through primary sources all in translation and discusses their interpretations from various modern perspectives.

Course also investigates the reception of myth in contemporary popular culture, especially cinema and television. Introduction to European Studies EUS 3 credits Introduces students of all backgrounds to the concept of Europe and the field of European Studies from a humanities perspective.

Europe: Language, Culture, and Identity EUS 3 credits Introduction to the field of European studies focusing on issues of language, culture, and identity. Continuation of emphasis on communication skills in a cultural context with special attention to grammar review. Not open to native speakers. Research and Bibliographic Methods FOL 3 credits Teaches how to find and evaluate print, electronic and online scholarly sources and how to outline, write, edit, critique, revise and evaluate a research paper in literary studies or linguistics.

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Required of all undergraduate majors in the Department of Languages, Linguistics, and Comparative Literature, preferably during the student's first semester of study. Special Topics FOL 3 credits Intensive study of variable special topics in the culture, civilization and language of Russia, Israel, Sweden and other countries. To be offered according to the needs of students and availability of instructors. Intensive study of theoretical issues and practical problems in critical reading and writing. Preparation of research papers. Emphasis is placed on speaking, aural comprehension, reading, and writing.

For students with little or no background in the language. Not open to native speakers or equivalent. Intermediate French Conversation FRE 3 credits Prerequisite: FRE or equivalent Course is designed to develop students' ability to communicate more fluently in French and discuss a wide variety of cultural topics relating to France and the broader Francophone world.

Francais de Perfectionnement: French for Bilinguals FRE 4 credits Prerequisite: Permission of instructor Designed for native speakers of French whose knowledge of formal written French is lacking. Development of reading and writing skills, with special focus on the formal standard language for general and professional use. Culture et Societe: Cinema FRE 3 credits Prerequisite: FRE or permission of instructor Course provides intensive practice in spoken and written French through an examination of selected cultural topics in contemporary French and francophone culture as highlighted in recent French-language films.

Review of grammar.

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FRE may be taken before Introduction to relevant aspects of French commerce. Prononciation et Phonetique FRE 3 credits Targeted pronunciation practice using the phonetic alphabet with the objective of improving production of standard French pronunciation. Provides students with the tools to systematically improve French pronunciation and understand spoken French in various contexts. Structural analysis of the phonology, semantics, morphology, and syntax, with theoretical and practical applications. Since content will vary, course may repeated for credit. Literature in Translation: The French Tradition FRT 3 credits Reading and discussion in English of selected works from the full range of French literature, including major and minor traditions, genres and individual authors.

Course content will vary from such genres as the novel and movements as Realism, to single authors such as Proust. Introduction to the Study of French-Language Literature FRW 3 credits Prerequisite: FRE or permission of instructor Introduction to a variety of approaches to understanding and analyzing French-Language literature: the major genre distinction, multiple types, analysis of prose, poetry, plays. French Civilization and Literature: Middle Ages and Renaissance FRW 3 credits Prerequisite: FRE or equivalent Study of major literary, intellectual and cultural developments beginning in the Middle Ages and including Latin traditions, the sermon, the verse epic, the troubadours, Arthurian cycles, Renaissance poetics, essay, and fiction.

Reading and discussion of representative texts. French Civilization and Literature: 17th and 18th Centuries FRW 3 credits Prerequisite: FRE or equivalent Study of major literary, intellectual, and cultural developments including Neoclassicism, Jansenism, comedy, satire, Enlightenment, and political essay. French Civilization and Literature: Middle Ages to Revolution FRW 3 credits Study of major literary, intellectual and cultural developments from the Middle Ages through , including verse epic, the troubadours, Arthurian cycles, Renaissance poetics, Humanism, Neoclassicism, Jansenism, comedy, satire, Enlightenment, epistolary novel, Conte philosophique and political essay.

Discussion focuses on medieval texts from widely varying textual traditions, such as the theological, courtly, lyric, and didactic. Primary texts accompanied by secondary readings contextualizing various historical, cultural, and social issues of the period. To understand the profound influence of courtly love as literary paradigm, students also study social, political, and theological factors affecting its development.

Course includes reading and discussion of representative texts. Focuses on works by writers and filmmakers whose families are originally from the Maghreb. Pays attention to discursive and aesthetic strategies as means of subversion, criticism and resistance. For third- and fourth-year students in good standing only, with program of study prearranged in consultation with instructor. Since content will vary, course may be repeated for credit.

Since subject of study will vary, course may be repeated for credit. First part of an introductory German course emphasizing communicative competence in German, while increasing an understanding of contemporary German culture. Beginning German Language and Culture 2 GER 4 credits Second part of an introductory German course emphasizing communicative competence in German, while increasing an understanding of contemporary German culture.

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Intermediate German GER 4 credits Prerequisite: GER or permission of instructor Intended to help students develop their German skills and express themselves more idiomatically and accurately in speaking as well as in writing. Emphasizes the ethnic and cultural complexities of contemporary society in the German-speaking world. Accompanied by an intermediate grammar, this course is intended to help students learn to speak, read, and write German with more confidence.

Advanced German: Reading and Composition GER 4 credits Practice of reading and composition based on literary and culturally relevant authentic texts. Business German GER 3 credits Prerequisite: One semester of intermediate German or permission of instructor Students learn to communicate in German in the world of business. Emphasis on current affairs in German economy and politics. Advanced German: Culture and Society GER 3 credits Prerequisite: Two semesters of intermediate German Emphasizes the complexity of contemporary German society through a wide range of authentic texts.

The course is intended to help students perfect their spoken and written German, while developing a deeper understanding of German culture and society. Structure of Modern German GER 3 credits Prerequisite or corequisite: LIN or permission of instructor Modern German from the point of view of descriptive linguistics, with emphasis on current issues and approaches.

Course may be repeated for credit. Course content will vary. Kafka, etc. Taught in English. Accompanied by an intermediate grammar, the course is intended to help students read and discuss literary texts, and express themselves more idiomatically and accurately in speaking as well as in writing. Modern German Literature GEW 3 credits Prerequisite: Two semesters of intermediate German Introduction to German literature and the basic concepts and techniques of literary analysis.

Students learn to analyze contemporary German literature and write about literary texts in German. Readings vary. Seminar in German Literature GEW 3 credits Prerequisite: Two semesters of intermediate German Students explore special topics in German literature by concentrating on a particular author, theme, genre, or period. Special Topics in German Literature GEW credits Advanced seminar on topics in German literature, concentrating on a particular author, theme, genre, or period.

For students with little or no background in the study of the ancient Greek language. Acquisition of translation, reading, and writing skills. Beginning Modern Greek Language and Culture 1 GRK 4 credits The course teaches students how to communicate in Modern Greek, the language spoken in both Hellas and Cyprus, by placing equal emphasis on speaking, reading, listening, and writing. Students are also exposed to a variety of ideas pertaining Hellenic culture and society.