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  1. Module Overview
  2. Essay on Comparative Public Administration | Public Administration
  3. | Introduction to Comparative Public Administration | | Sabine Kuhlmann |
  4. Comparative Public Management
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Students must complete their program of study within three years from the date of admission and earn a minimum 3. All course grades must be "C" or better. Students may take up to two electives outside the Department. These electives must be selected from a list of approved electives or must be approved by Certificate Co-Chairs. Shaoming Cheng, Ph. Maidique Campus, S. Steven J. Jean-Claude Garcia-Zamor The Certificate in International and Comparative Public Administration is designed as a specialization for students interested in international policy and administrative affairs.

Admission Requirements All applicants must hold a baccalaureate degree from an accredited college or university and have an upper division GPA of at least 3. How to Apply In order for you to be officially considered for admission to a Graduate Certificate program, you must complete the following steps: Submit an application online: If you are currently enrolled in a FIU Master's or Doctoral degree program — Graduate Certificate Program Application Submit an application fee. General Requirements Students must complete their program of study within three years from the date of admission and earn a minimum 3.

Though there are aplenty,however,some examples are cited below. There are various social laws in India that are made from society like panchayats,etc.

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Tribal welfare is given special attention in India due to existence of tribals in the society. Many offices bureaucratic,political,economical,etc are remnants of British legacy like the office of the collector,police dept,civil services,etc. Revenue administration here is a modern version inspired by historic Mughal ones. A few of them cited are the Civil war that lead to providing African American slaves were given the title of citizens and right to vote. Also the second civil rights movement that occurred under the aegis of Martin Luther King Jr. The storming of Bastille incident which was fuelled by economic crisis lead to the overthrow of monarchy there to republican system and led to the establishment of Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen that lead to the first step of France's constitution framing.

There are three level of governments - national or federal,state and local counties,townships,cities,etc. Separation of powers between the legislature,executive and judiciary is an important aspect. There is no specificity in the constitution regarding the administrative system but it does state that the President can from time to time as and when necessary get advise from the principal officers of the various departments regarding his duty as the chief executive of those departments.

There are thirteen departments in the administration that come under the direct control of the president. Civil services in USA are also done on merit through competitive exams and also at times there are some political appointees too who are chosen by the president for their extraordinary achievement in a particular field suitable to the job.

Some departments are headed by individuals whereas some are headed by Boards and Commissions. In practise it is a Parliamentary democracy. The Monarch is the head and performs functions akin to the President of India. Legislature is supreme and is bicameral viz. House of Lords upper house and House of Commons lower house.

Executive is headed by the political executive that is the Prime Minister and his cabinet that consist of ministries staffed by civil servants under ministers. Boards and commissions are formed to operate and regulate various industries and services. Judiciary is independent. The House of Lords is the highest court of appeal for civil cases and some criminal cases. It consists of the following courts: Court of Appeal- Deals only with appeals from other courts or tribunals. The Court of Appeal consists of two divisions: the Civil Division hears appeals from the High Court and County Court and certain superior tribunals, while the Criminal Division may only hear appeals from the Crown Court connected with a trial on indictment i.

Its decisions are binding on all courts, including itself, apart from the Supreme Court. High Court of Justice - The High Court of Justice functions, both as a civil court of first instance and a criminal and civil appellate court for cases from the subordinate courts.

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It consists of three divisions: the Queen's Bench, the Chancery and the Family divisions. The divisions of the High Court are not separate courts, but have somewhat separate procedures and practises adapted to their purposes. Although particular kinds of cases will be assigned to each division depending on their subject matter, each division may exercise the jurisdiction of the High Court. However, beginning proceedings in the wrong division may result in a costs penalty.

Crown Court- is a criminal court of both original and appellate jurisdiction which in addition handles a limited amount of civil business both at first instance and on appeal.

The Crown Court is an inferior court in respect of the other work it undertakes, viz. The Lord Chancellor and Home Secy administrate the judicial system.

Essay on Comparative Public Administration | Public Administration

Civil servants are recruited through merit via open competitive exams. President is the Chief executive and enjoys tremendous powers in the legislature as well as Parliament. Here the President is directly elected by the people. The Prime Minister is then chosen and appointed as per the President's wish from the Parliament. The Prime Minister has to enjoy the confidence of both the President and the Parliament in order to sustain his position.

Executive is separated from legislature and thus the President is not able to influence the executive much but still indirectly the PM has to go by him to enjoy his confidence because most of the times,the parliament and the president are from the same party. Civil services are of two types External recruitment and internal recruitment where external recruitment is done through open competitive exams for graduates under 27 years of age and the internal recruitment is for people from the lower echelons of service having at least five years of service and not more than 36 years old.

They are then chosen and trained at the Ecole Nationale Administration for two years. | Introduction to Comparative Public Administration | | Sabine Kuhlmann |

The Emperor performs the role akin to Indian president. The Japanese people elect their representatives to the Japanese Parliament called Diet which is bicameral that is, House of Councillors and the House Of Representatives. Both Houses share equal powers but the house of representatives has superiority in matters of finance.

Grants are to be passed by the Diet and then only it is given to the executive. Local govt possess autonomy in its matters. People posses the right to choose their public officials as well as remove them. Civil services are of two types here - a Special govt service - includes members of cabinet approved by the Diet like positions of high officials in Imperial Court,Judges,Ambassadors and Ministers,Diet employees,common labourers and employees of state corporations.

In a Democracy, the Majority has unlimited power over the Minority. This system of government does not provide a legal safeguard of the rights of the Individual and the Minority. It has been referred to as "Majority over Man". In a Republic, the Majority is Limited and constrained by a written Constitution which protects the rights of the Individual and the Minority.

The purpose of a Republic form of government is to control the Majority and to protect the God-given, inalienable rights and liberty of the Individual. The Ministers head Ministries with directors under them to carry out execution and also to advise the Minister.

Comparative Public Management

However, it got a boost once again when scholars like Robert Dahl,James Cloeman,Rapheli,Dwight Waldo etc propagated it and stated that without comparison there can never be a science of administration. Also the behavioural school of thought was bringing in a lot of attention to the fact and value theories of administrative man and so comparative public administration saw a resurgence.

In the 80's and 90's studies in CPA resurfaced but with a new objective,philosophy and orientation than its previous predecessors and counterparts. It started to study various arrangements like RTI,Rule of Law,good governance,etc in different countries. It has recently started focusing itself on the analysis of such operations of administrative systems which affect functioning of various societies.

The following could be seen as the recent trends in the studies of Comparative Public Administration: 1 Studying the status of human rights in the nations of the problems associated with human rights. And this environment includes physical,social and cultural aspects. Environment is the largest system,the rest and others like political systems,administrative systems,etc are all sub systems who work under it. It influences its sub systems and vice versa. They both have to adjust to each other and also reform and change each other from time to time to stay up to date where the people's wishes drive the policies and the policies bring in development that uplifts the socio-economic status and level of the environment for progress.

So they are interdependent and not mutually exclusive of each other. Administration is seen as one of the most significant aspect of any societal arrangement as it makes possible the achievement of governmental function fulfilment. It has been observed that administration of any state happens to be an expression of various unique factors existing in society and is inter dependant over other arrangements in the society that provides the stability of all structure in a society. Various scholars like George Orwell in their writings like 'Shooting an Elephant' books have given case studies of how they have seen practically that the administrative systems in different parts of the world perform differently in order to suit the environment or ecology they are set in.

The ecological approach to Public Administration was first propagated popularly by Fred W.

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  8. Riggs who studied administrative systems in different countries emphasis on developing countries and why there was a vast amount of disconnect among them while applying the Americanised theories of Public Administration and how they coped up. He found that the main reason for this uniqueness of administrative systems in the world is the environment that they are set in. Each country had a different environment setting and that played a major role in the shaping of the administrative system because without the help and approval of its people an administrative system cannot survive and thus it acts according to its environment and in turn it also influences the society with its work and procedures.

    Max Weber projected an ideal system of bureaucracy where bureaucracy was shown as a closed system unaffected by the environment. A system which Weber assumed would be applicable and successful in all countries irrespective of its socio economic status and that's where he went wrong because we can very well see that the systems in USA and UK etc cannot be applied in an environment of India or any other developing countries.

    Weber did provide a very good structure for the organisation of bureaucracy but the part which he missed as cited above was the starting ground for Riggs when he began his research on the relationship between ecology and administration. Internally it affects when we take note that in actuality the administrator is a man of society and thus when he is taking an administrative decision,he will definitely be influenced by his values,societal and cultural attitude,etc to quite an extent and that needs to be taken into account.

    Therefore,one can very conveniently understand from the above mentioned,the delicate and crucial relationship between Ecology and Administration. He stated that if studies of Public Administration had to become really comparative then it has to shift from being Normative Establishing, relating to, or deriving from a standard or norm, esp. He blamed the import of developed countries' administrative practices as it is by the developing countries for their progress without any study as the reason for its failure and the reason for developing countries still lagging behind. In his ecological studies he gave the concept of structural functional approach as a means to study the environment and administration relation.

    On the basis of this approach he proceeded to study and listed two theoretical models to explain the administrative systems in the comparative context. Those models are: a AGRARIA MODEL: It is the Agricultural society and the characteristics are functional diffusion,particularistic norms,self sufficiency,ascriptive The attribution of something to a cause values,stable local groups and limited or no mobility,differentiated stratification.

    Agraria is agriculture dominated society and Riggs takes China at the time for instance Imperial China.

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    In Agrarian primordial preferences like caste and given priority. Occupational pattern is fixed that is Agriculture and carries on for many generations. It is in between or lets use the term in transition between the Agraria and Industria society and bears features resembling to both. It is on the path to become a developed society from an agricultural society. Examples are India,Thailand,etc.

    Its characteristics are Universalistic norms,Achievement values,specific patterns,high degree of social and spatial mobility,well-developed occupational system,egalitarian class system,prevalence of associations which are functionally specific and non ascriptive. USA is an example of this society. Critics argue that the industrial societies will always retain or have some agrarian features. Frank castle October 8, at PM. Zeus Sai January 20, at PM.