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Dutch text. The Beautifull Cassandra. Penguin Little Black Classics. Vancouver: Engage, Marie Dupin. French text. Jane Austen: The Complete Works. Penguin Hardcover Classics Boxed Set. Lady Susan e le altre: Romanzi e racconti epistolary. Giuseppe Ierolli. Roma: Elliot, Italian text. Mansfield Park. Northanger Abbey. The Prayers of Jane Austen. Terry W.

Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad

Eugene: Harvest House, Pride and Prejudice. Alice Pattullo. Beverly, MA: Rockport, Classics Reimagined. Sense and Sensibility. Richmond: Alma Classics, Ferrante, Elena, introd. Philip Bannister. London: Folio Society, Nicholson, Eleanor Bourg, ed. Ignatius Critical Editions, with an introduction and contemporary criticism. Essays are individually cited. Pike, Rosamund, narr.

Newark: Audible, Unabridged CD. Weldon, Fay, introd. Dressmakers were equally in despair. No skill was required to run up the shapeless pillow-case that the mode dictated, and most young ladies made their own frocks. In an eflfort to put their trade on its feet, elaborately beaded and sequined models were launched for evening wear; still pillow-cases, for nothing, while the style lasted, could wean women from the tube shape.

The young women retaliated by not wearing evening dress at all, but a silk shawl instead and nothing else. It was tightly wrapped round the body under the arms, Burmese-fashion, and flung over one shoulder. Those unfor- tunates handicapped by natural curves compressed themselves into oblong corsets specially designed to flatten out the breasts and squeeze in the hips so as to give a straight line from shoulder to feet. Many comfortable grandmothers to-day look back with amusement to the time when they and the century were both in their mid-twenties and the chief qualification for a fiancee was to appear to have nothing wherewidi to nourish future offspring.

To-day the womanly ideal is still to be slender, but violent curves are required at bust and hips. Not only are the most intimate items of female underwear lavishly advertised in every newspaper and displayed in shop windows, but for sale alongside them are artificial breasts in all sizes, the latest ones pneumatic.

Modem brassieres are guaranteed to mould the breast to par- ticular requirements and at the same time to clamp them into any desired position. It shocked nobody. To-day there would appear to be litde more to reveal which has not already been tried. So we come to nudism, a modem cult which its disciples claim is healthy, inexpensive, and hurts no one. For sumptuary laws are a thin g of the past; and the English are inclined to regard nudism indulgently as an amiable eccentricity, though the British climate turns it into a Spartan ordeal.

They date from , when the first timid lowering of the pre- viously high-necked blouse brought a flood of indignant protest and many a lady, rather than violate her pudeur by wearing the frshionable but improper V-neck, bought and inserted a lace gor- get like this to restore the status quo. A thing full of prate and pride and conceit All fashion no weight Who shrugs and takes snuff, and carries a muff, A minnikin, finicking French powder-puff. J UST as the jackdaw delights in adorning its nest with glittering objects, so early man, long before he took to wearing the skins of animals, decorated his body with bright flowers and daubed himself with paint.

The flowers were to make himself more beautiful, the paint to awe his friends and to frighten his enemies. Among the earUest prehistoric finds are red and black colours ground into powder, which, mixed with animal fat, adhered to the body. Thus male dress in its development has combined these two elements of coquetry and dignity.

Sometimes as in the aristo- cratically abbreviated tunics worn in the reign of Edward IV coquetry" triumphs over dignity. At other times as in the long Oriental male robe or the impressive long Tudor gown worn by older men dignity prevails over coquetry. Modem male evening dress displays at the back long tails and sombre colour, at the front a frivolously exiguous white waist- coat.

Anthropologists assure us that dandies are as frequendy found among primitive peoples as in more civilized communities. The primitive Australian male aborigines wear a fan-shaped fur- string pubic tassel no larger than a five-shiUing piece. Not for protection. Still less for propriety. But for decoration. Dyak dandies delight in the nice adjustment of the fourteen yards of material required for their loin-cloths.

Nor were men less devoted to dress in ancient times. The earhest Babylonian male wrappers were artfully arranged in spiral folds which needed thirty feet of material a yard wide, as examples found in tombs have proved. The priests of the ancient Hebrews believed dress and moraHty to be inseparable, and therefore set their faces against any change in the mode. They raised an outcry in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, for instance, against the import of Greek caps, fearful lest their young men might at the same time import Greek ideas on moraHty, There seems to be some basis for their fear.

To take a nearer example, EngHsh youths who swagger about in oversized American-styled jackets of sky-blue gaberdine and chequered cowboy shirts also like to drink Coca-cola and mouth American slang. A correspondent from Plymouth wrote to his Sunday news- paper in July I recently watched an open-air dance on Plymouth Hoe. Jive was the order of the day. A national culture is a close-packed jigsaw pattern. Altering one piece may cause its total disintegration.

The highly sophisticated Egyptians used more cosmetics than any other ancient peoples, and Egyptian men painted their eye- brows and all round their eyes with antimony. Roman men also used make-up. Petronius poked fun at a young gallant whose facial paint had melted in the heat and run down to his chin.

Egyptian dandies of the Middle Kingdom originated a new form of coquetry when they began wearing a long skirt of trans- parent material over the customary loin-cloth. Waist-tightening, one of the oldest forms of coquetry, has been used quite as often by men as by women. Dancfies in Port Moresby New Guinea use tight-lacing to achieve a small waist.

In Crete men belted in their single garment extremely tightly to make themselves wasp-waisted. Aristophanes ridiculed the Greek poet Cinesias for pulling in his waist by means of a corset fash- ioned from small wooden planks.

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A precisely similar corset was later worn by Amtoninus Pius without arousing particular com- ment. The narrow waist so typical of fifteenth-century male dress in Europe was not achieved without merciless pinching. During the greater part of the nineteenth century it was considered handsome for a man to be elegantly narrow in the middle, and corsets were much more commonly worn by men than is generally supposed. Any garment which adds to height is intended to increase dignity, whether the extra height is obtained by adding to the headdress as in the bearskin hat of our Guards regiments, a purely cere- monial mihtary headdress which would be impossible to fight in, and even during the limited exertion of summer parades often causes the wearer to faint from its weight and oppression or obtained by lengthen- ing the gowm.

The length of the gown is sometimes so exaggerated for the sake of aggrandisement that all movement becomes impossible. Royal trains, for example.

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Similarly, long fingernails, such as were culti- vated by Chinese potentates of the old school, demonstrate that the wearer need not stir because he had many servants to do his bidding. The top-hat, though we are too used to it for it to excite awe in us to-day, is a strong assertion of pride and dignity. To-day top-hats are only worn on occasions requiring the display of particular dignity, such as weddings, funerals, royal garden- parties.

The vertical Gothic ideal of the Middle Ages was expressed in elegantly long sleeves trailing the ground, elegantly long legs revealed by close-fitting tights in brilliant colours, elongated hats, fantastically long-toed shoes. Those whose rank and wealth permitted the expenditure, and not a few who could lay claim to neither, had them made up in sumptuous materials, jagged into a thousand fanciful shapes, and em- broidered all over with devices, musical motifs, and mottoes.

Edward III ordered different mottoes for each set of sleeves, exquisitely worked in gold thread and Jewels. One pair of sleeves bore this distich: Hay! The whythc swan. The sleeves contained so much more material than the abbrevi- ated tunic that there was much more scope for decoration on the sleeves. Pointed or piked shoes came to England with the Norman Conquest. Through- out the Middle Ages the pikes of shoes grew steadily longer and longer until it was necessary, if the wearer were to walk at all, for the toes to be chained up.

Dandies chose such chains in gold and silver and wore them fastened to the knee. At the other extreme, hoods were worn with immensely long ends trailing five feet or more, tmtil elegants solved the problem of what to do with all this modish superfluity by winding the liripipe twice or thrice round their necks before allowing the end to dangle. Royal processions, particularly coronations, in the Middle Ages were marked by spreading the streets with rich cloths, especially between Westminster Hall and Westminster Abbey. These costly cloths were allowed to be taken home by the public once the procession had passed.

So violent were the battles for a snatch or the finery that spectators were regularly killed in the press after every procession. In a German fancy swept Europe.

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Tinkling bells were sewn round the borders ofponrpoints, aU along baldricks, round garters, on hats, and wired to stand out from embroidered belts. The pecuhar hall-mark of the dandy, at all times and in all countries, has been a preoccupation with the smooth fitting of his dress. Pueblo Indians used to make their moccasins carefully to measure by steeping the cut skins in wet sand to soften the leather, after which they were moulded on to the feet and allowed to dry — z device later followed by the Regency bucks who, as we have said, put on their buckskin pantaloons wet in order that they might dry tighdy fitting the shape of the legs.

This anxiety for a smooth fit was by no means always related to the natural shape of the body. The shape of doublets and trunks in the time of Queen Elkaheth I was entirely different from the human form, the natural male structure being ignored and a smooth, totally false shape built up over it by artifice. A gallant needed six pounds of bombast at least to make up his peascod-belly, and the sHghtest shower of rain was disastrous. So MUFFS AND MORALS 38 was the accidental catching of his garment on a nail, such as happened to one unfortunate courtier just as he was advancing to make his reverence to the Queen, the chaff with which he was so proudly stuffed escaping in a twinkling, leaving him com- pletely deflated.

What die peascod-belly looked like we may see from the traditional costume of Mr Punch. For nowe the fashion is to have them hange downe in the middel of their theighes or at least to their privy members, being so hard-quilted and stuffed bombasted and sewed as they can verie hardly either stoup downe or decline themselves on the grounde so styffe and sturdy they stande aboute them.

E n gl i s h eighteenth century. But to be stifle and sturdy was the object of such dress. Good patriot that he was, Stubbes blamed the mode on to the Itahans. Peascod-bellies were too modish to be discouraged by satire, however, and the fashion lingered on for a long time. In the MALE COQUETRY 39 eighteenth century, though there was always a lot of talk of fit, the art had not been invented, and tailors were afraid to cut into the gorgeous materials, but instead padded the coat for smooth- ness and wired the skirts of the coat to stand out stylishly.

That is why eighteenth-century male dress appears to us now so bulky for aU its elegance. Elegants affected the French style. There is not one of them can cut, madame. If you observe how this skirt is turned and this sleeve All French I assure you except the greatcoats. I never trust anything more than a greatcoat to an Englishman.

As we have seen, when the hose of the Middle Ages had become too fashionably tight to permit movement, a gusset was intro- duced to ease the strain. This gusset, being displayed in its entirety by the shortness of the tunic, the Church demanded the wearing of a pouch in the interests of decency. Each country in Europe developed its own fancy variation of the mode. Indeed, it is possible to date and place wdth considerable accuracy unnamed and imdated portraits of the period by studying the details of this one article of dress.

The Itahans preferred a large braguette worn with a minimum of trunks. There are, of course, other ways for a man to parade his virility in his dress besides flaimting his legs in tights or displaying a manly cod-piece. Henry VIII was so proud of his broad shoulders that he had his doublets built out almost square, a style faithfully copied by his courtiers. Flat cap and jowl-beard squaring off the face further emphasized this bulky look. The shoes too were widened to twelve inches across the toes, in the Flemish fashion. Henry VUI was, in fact, trying to imitate the Roman classic tunic in his square dress, for this is the period of the beginning of the Renaissance in England.

But if there is anything at all that history teaches us it is that nothing in dress ever repeats itself, a new style invariably taking more from its own period than from its model. At its extreme, no inch of dress, shoes, hat, or gloves escaped the styUsh shredding.

This fashion, as was the case with the cod-piece and piked shoes, was faithfully copied into the armour of the period. Shakespeare, who was dandy enough to wear the fashion himself, pokes fun at it in The Taming of the Shrew. With Charles I, Tudor bombast gave way to Stuart limpness. Soft satins, drooping plumes, dangling ribbons, flaccid lace flounces. Cavaher wide-topped boots fell in lazy folds, revealing layers of deHcate lace flounces inside.

Exquisites wore a love- ock, tied at the end with a ribbon, dangling over their left shoulder to be nearer the heart. George Vilhers, beloved friend of the King, wore jewels sewn all over his clothes. To the Puritans such luxury and effeminacy were anathema, and they registered their disapproval by dressing themselves with the utmost sobriety and — a new idea — cleanliness. Devout Puritans wore coarse underwear embroidered lavishly with texts from the Bible. Until then elegance continued to go, as it had always gone, hand in hand with dirt.

Louis XIV, who set the pattern of elegant nobiUty for all Europe, washed himself once a year, and that was once a year more than many fine gentlemen thought necessary. Sleeves were regarded as a separate garment and similarly attached by points to the tunic.

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Even sh irt sleeves were put on separately and then laced on. Charles I was painted in a dress which displayed his points hanging down in clusters as a decoration, hose carelessly loose and wrinkled in the fashionably neghgent style. English, Flounced petticoat breeches over which was pouched a loose rich shirt, enormous periwigs Charles II borrowed this fashion from the Court of Louis XIV and introduced it into the English Court , hair-powder, face-painting, fans for men , mufiS for men , stirop-hose two yards wide at the top. A poet of the time describes men as wearing Too good to hold.

And, indeed, never again did alter, because this was the beginning of the present morning-coat. The waist, up tmder the armpits at the beginning of the Res- toration, sank to the knees withm a few years, giving a peculiarly long-bodied, short-legged effect which was still further developed before the end of the seventeenth century, and is displayed to per- fection in the chairs of the Restoration period with their overlong backs and diminutive httlc legs, like dachshunds.

Have I nat a page to carry it? You may make him a packet up to his chin apurpose for it. But I will nat have mine so near my face. The packet becomes no part of the bady but the knee. Charles II liked Froich lace cravats so much that he introduced them into England and wore them on all occasions himself, even with armour. There were dozens of ways of tying the cravat. The King preferred to wind it loosely twice round the neck and then knot it casually. Presendy a narrow black ribbon was tied over the cravat, and this ribbon soon grew wider and wider until it became a sub- stitute cravat and was often worn on the bare neck by itself.

Lord Byron and the French Revolution both profoundly affected the history of neckwear. Sans cravates as well as sans culotteSy the French Revolutionaries stormed the Bastille bare- necked. Later they adopted a coarse scarf, and though Robes- pierre and the Revolutionary generals meticulously retained their high-necked shirts and broad black stocks, anything flung round the neck passed without criticism.

The Incroyables of were in nothing more exaggerated than their pouter-pigeon bosoms, artfully contrived by means of a small pillow worn beneath the cravats. Merrier, that invaluable wdtness, described their heads resting on their cravats as on a cushion and their chins buried so deep in masses of material that it was impossible for them to move their heads at all. Returning emigres and nouveau riche young thugs the black- shirts of their day, they were called Muscadins prowled the streets of Paris at night armed wdth stout cudgels to beat up Jacobins.

They wore a black velvet collar on their coats in mourning for Louis XVI. This black velvet collar has never gone out of feshion since, though few men to-day could tell why they wear it. The Incroyables, however, were not original in their curious attire. They favoured a style of dress with pouter-pigeon bosom, cravat swathed over the chin, skimpy white silk breeches worn extremely tight and giving the effect of bow legs. Besides these unmistakable signs, a Macaroni distinguished himself from others by his very high wig, on the top of which was perched a tiny hat, which he raised in salute by means of a tall cane.

He wore high-heeled shoes with striped ItaHan stockings, and it was these striped Italian stockings which the French Incroyables adopted in the erroneous belief that they were typically English. In such devious ways does fashion travel. The Macaroni collar was so high as to force the head back- ward.

A wag wrote: Six yards of cravat with of starch half a pound To keep head erect whilst my neck it went round; Shirt collars like whiskers of e min ent size. Just so high as to give a slight glimpse of my eyes. Once a fashion starts it gallops to extremes, each devotee taking the cult farther and farther. So with the cravat. For forty years, as collars heightened continually and cravats were tied ever more tightly, it was the highest fashion for a gentleman to display every symptom of strangulation — a hectic colour, popping eyes, head jerked backward.

The Prince Regent is a perfect example. Unwittingly he had launched a new fashion. Frenchmen abandoned starch and tore open their shirt-collars, and all the young poets of Europe threw away their stocks and let their hair grow romantically long and dishevelled, to the disgust of their idol, who at heart had a profound respect for the conventions. But the genius of his age had the unfortunate gift of creating Frankenstein monsters. Byron had known and liked George Brummell, and, had it not been for his crippled leg and the handicap of his ploughboy valet Fletcher, might well have succeeded in becoming a dandy himself.

French, But this was m London, where Byron was careful to dress exacdy like other yoimg men about town. Liberalism in his day was considered so terrible a danger just as Socialism is so considered in America to-day that the least manifestation of it was remorselessly stamped out by the remain- ing and badly fnghtened monarchs of Europe. In the year an earnest German dress-reform movement was started with the innocent objective of freeing the neck from the oppression of the high collar.

But anything to do with any kind of reform roused the fury of Frederick William IH of Prussia, who in 1 prohibited open necks by law as rebellious. The Tsar went even further than the Prussian King. In he commanded his troops to be posted on the roads in Russia with orders to examine the travellers in every carriage and seize those males who had the temerity to wear new-fangled long pantaloons revolutionary instead of old-fashioned knee-breeches conservative. The revolutionary lower halves of the offending pantaloons were to be summarily cut off.

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Throughout the first fifty years of the nineteenth century the shifting social stresses in France were exactly mirrored in the different ways in which Frenchmen tied their cravats. Balzac was himself suspected of being the anonymous author of the most popular of these handbooks, VArt de mettre sa cravate, which covered the entire subject so satisfactorily in eighteen lessons, besides listing the names and addresses of the smartest Paris cravat-shops, that it sold out more than a dozen editions within a few years and was translated into every European language.

A cravat could be tied en cascade, d la gastronome, d la Byron, d la paressetise, and so on. Each profession adopted its ovm dis- tinctive style. The stock fitted smoothly round the throat and fastened tighdy at the back of the neck. Usually too tightly. Charles Dickens, in a letter to a friend from Cornwall in describing his trip, writes: I never laughed in my life as I did on this journey.

It would have done you good to hear me. I was choking and gasping and bursting the buckles off the back of my stock all the way. Brummell required three. Any mistake in tying, it was stressed, was necessarily fatal. The faulty cravat must be discarded and a fresh one attempted. The final touches were to be applied with a hot iron after the arrangement of the cravat had been com- pleted. To-day, however, along with Marshall Aid and the presence of American troops in many European countries, the American tie is also making its appearance.

This phenomenon, usually violent in colour and extravagant in design, often painted wtith hearty slogans or naked women symbohzing American virility? Will its influence increase? Besides cravats, waistcoats were a favoured object for the exercise of male coquetry in the nineteenth century. It may be quiet or garish, meek or haughty, modest or presuming, elegant or slovenly. During the Franco-Prussian War this correspondent enterprisingly sent his sartorial reports to London by balloon. Ingenuity sometimes crept into formal dress.

This fancy waistcoat was made to button high across the chest with the object of preventing the wearer from catching a chiU. It would be imgrateful to end this chapter without a glance at the two most important EngUsh men of fashion. Beau Nash and Beau Brummell. The true dandy is the complete Narcissus, and it is typical of both Nash and Brummell that neither was known to cherish any real love for anyone beside themselves, and both died bachelors. Beau Nash was responsible for the introduction of better manners into English high Ufe, Beau BrummeU for the intro- duction of personal cleanliness.

Both were gamblers. Beau Nash was bom in , of a good but impoverished family. A wit and imsuccessful lawyer besides being a man of fashion, he went to Bath, like so many other adventurers of his time, to seek his fortune at the gaming tables. There he had the good luck to be elected Master of Ceremonies of Bath. He took his new office seriously, and drove about Bath in a magnificent coach drawn by six greys and attended by laced lacqueys, deferred to by the highest in the land.

Nash wore a gorgeous uniform of his own design, with a great white hat and white staff, and his commands were impHcitly obeyed both in dress and in behaviour. His edicts helped to reform the gross manners of Society, for he forbade the wearing of top-boots and of swords at Assemblies. He frowned on duelling and swearing. And he once tore a morning apron off the Duchess of Queensberry, who had imprudently appeared at an evening ball in it, throwing the offensive garment into a comer of the Assembly Room like an outraged schoolmaster. The Bath Corporation had reason to be thankful to Nash, for imder his guidance the town prospered and became the leading centre of fashion in all England.

Assembly Rooms were added, the Pump Room was rebuilt, and a new playhouse designed. Bathing began early in the morning.

Bathers entered the healing waters dressed in stiff canvas gowns, to which ladies fastened a floating tray to hold bouquet and handkerchief the tray being attached to dieir waists by ribbons. And when he died the city gave him a sumptuous public funeral Beau Brummell, bom in , flew higher and sank lower.

He was somewhat less of a personaHty, less intelligent, more neurotic, than Nash. It is extraordinary that a man with the double handicap of service and trade in his family should have been able to cHmb the social ladder as he did. Pitt, during a debate in the House of Commons, sneered at his stage association, and the Duchess of Devonshire her- self, hberal-minded as she was for those days, hesitated before allowing him to be presented to her, because his father had been connected with the stage. He had a certain insolent wit, and at sixteen schoolboy charm enough to attract the Prince of Wales, who gave him a commission in his own Hussars.

Brummell paid so litde attention to his military duties, however, that he was only able to identify his own troops on parade because they included one tall soldier who had a blue nose. Not that the officers led an altogether exacting mihtary life. They paraded daily at one, drank rill five, and spent every evening at the theatre. At the age of twenty-five Brummell came into a foruine of thirty thousand pounds, gave up the Service, and settled in May- fair.

He was an instant social success. Weal ceniii, -. Tei Marl- borough The Prince of Wales treated Brunmiell with the tenderest devotion and consulted him assiduously about every detail of each new royal outfit. His morning dress consisted of a blue coat, buff waistcoat, buckskins, and top-boots. They fitted his hand so perfectly that his finger-nafis showed in outline. Three barbers were required to attend to his hair, one for the back, one for the sides, and one for the fiont.

It may be noted that our present-day Guardsmen arc not in- frequently carried on to the parade ground by their colleagues for the same reason. When BrummeU visited noble country houses he always took with him his own pot-de-chambre in its special travelling case of mahogany bound with brass.

He was, however, reluctant to leave London, which he loved, for the country, which he loathed. Fox-hunting, the dehght of EngHsh country gentlemen, filled him with horror, not because of the cruelty but because of the dirt. He was a poor horseman, as the broken nose which marred his good looks testified. He kept two hacks but only for the sake of appearances. Brummell liked fine porcelain, collected snuff-boxes, and also walking-sticks, and even began to write a book on the History of Dress, but his major passion was dressing.

He rose very late and spent practically aU day bathing in perfumed baths, being shaved, and slowly dressing himself before an admiring audience of hangers-on. Every evening he had a shoal of invitations to choose from. He kept his box at Covent Garden and spent much time with royalty. He entertained beyond his means. Such was his fame during die height of his power to that news- papers in reporting social events printed his name before that of the most illustrious guests present, and when he finally quarrelled with the Prince of Wales, the Committee of Watier's Club debated at length whether to leave out the Prince of Wales rather than Brummell from the invitations to an important festivity.

The quarrel with the Prince of Wales is well known. Brum- mell, whose wit consisted largely in impertinence, disliked Mrs Fitzherbert. True or not, it vras related of Brummell that he accepted a wager that he would give an order to the Prince and that the Prince would carry it out vdthout protest. More typicd of him is the true story of how he was too drunk on his bridal night with Queen Caroline to rise from the bedroom carpet, where he lay aU night in a drunken stupor while his un- fortunate bride awaited him in vain under the ostrich-plumed canopy of the nuptial couch.

But then he disliked Caroline heartily from the start. It was not the quarrel with the Prince of Wales which ruined Brummell, though the Prince never forgave him, but gambling. At the period when England was struggling for her hfe against Napoleon, English Society continued its favourite diversion of gambling. Famous fortunes melted away in nightly sessions of loo and faro, and Charles James Fox, his coat turned inside out and his face blackened to propitiate the Goddess of Chance, sat at the gaming tables with his friends from early evening till sunrise, night after night.

Furniture out. And Brummell, who was no fool despite his affectations, hoped to win enough at the gaming tables to put his finances in order, no doubt, and then quit. Brummell began to lose after first winning. Then he went to moneylenders to recoup. Bankrupt and heavily in debt, he made one last appear- ance in his box at Covent Garden, whence he fled by carriage to the coast and Calais.

He was thirty-eight. He languished in gaol for three months. Inside prison he held his daily levees as usual, and visitors flocked into the prison to pay him court. Faithful fiiends still raised contributions for him from England William IV once gave ; ]ioo , but he could not resist luxury and gradually became so poor that he lacked money even to pay postage on his begging letters.

Brummell grew bald and spent every penny left to him on perfumed oil for his wig.

He went mad, grew filthy and gluttonous, devoured fifteen dishes at a meal, and finally was taken struggling to the lunatic asylum at Caen, where he died in No one attended his funeral, and his grave was soon a mass of weeds. But he had not Hved in vam. Nineteenth century. British Museum. Glorification has been the objective in, mind in designing garments for both sexes, and therefore personal con- venience in wear has been readily ignored. This has been particularly the case with mihtary uniforms, which, until the First World War, were designed to make the soldier stand out as much as possible by the use of bright colours and tall headdresses, so that he might awe his enemies and in leisure moments of which there were considerable fascinate the opposite sex.

The Boer War brought home the lesson that a scarlet jacket makes an easy target against a dun landscape. The overwhelming destructiveness, however, of modem weapons of war is rapidly rendering protective uniform useless. For what good is khaki drill against the atomic bomb? This impasse will probably stimulate the designing of new decorative non-functional uniforms.

The Spartans, it is tme, introduced crimson battle-dress with red boots, in order to hide the blood-stains. French, Some armour had three layers or more of mail and metal. A French knight at Agiacourt reported that their armour was so heavy that they could only advance very slowly, with firequent pauses to take breath. Metal armour was terribly hot and heavy to wear — especially during the Crusades, when the sun of the Holy Land beat down so fiercely that the metal became as hot as a cooking--pan.

Locked in metal plates fiom head to foot, a knight in the fourteenth century rode to batde half stifled and half blinded. There was also the point to consider that armour rusted in the rain. The surcoat, which was introduced to stop the armour from rusting by preventing it from getting wet, also added to the weight the knight had to carry into batde.

The possibihties of luxurious display in armour were exploited by the richest nobles, who lavished fortunes in this maimer, and whose horses were equally caparisoned in cosdy armour. The rich trappings proved an irresistible provocation to pursuit and cap- ture by the enemy, the value of the trappings often being worth more than the possible ransom, and the heavy weight of the armour rendering capture an easy matter. It was recorded in that the six pages of Sir John de Come- wall rode horses covered with ermine and cloth of gold. And so on. Only the wealthiest knights, of course, wore full armour.

Common soldiers wore none at all, and sometimes fought even without shoes. Knightly helmets lent them- selves to such grotesque shapes as pig-faces, steeples, and long beaks, according to die mode in civilian dress, and the most fantastic were reserved for tournaments. The Household Cavalry still wear metal breastplates on ceremonial occasions.

The Duke of Marlborough fought in the heat and dirt of Oudenarde in a magnificent laced coat with his ducal star among the orders on his breast, wig, and fine plumed cocked- aust have presented a wonderful target for the enemy. Nelson, who also preferred to fight in his medals, was less lucky on the Victory.

During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, when personal cleanliness was almost unknown except by a small band mode copied in of Puritans and Quakers who were gener- armour ally held in contempt , the British Army Note codpiece, and was dressed in white breeches and slashing. European, powdered wigs. And what better target could be devised than the contemporary kilts and sporrans of tie Highland regiments? It is true they terrified the German soldiers of the War. But this dress, evolved for comfort on wet Northern moors, is surely the least practical for the extremes of tropic and Arctic climates where the wars of to-day are fought.

The answer to these inconsistencies is that morale which depends to a remarkable extent upon what clothes are worn is more important to a soldier than safety precautions, or so the authorities think. The dress of the clergy has been more distinguished in history for its pomp than its piety. Supposed to lead their flock away from the sin of vanity, only too frequently Christian priests have led them into it by direct example. The Ancients dressed both their gods and their priests in robes of great splendour which required an army of dressmakers, jewellers, launderers, and valets to keep in repair, and the upkeep of which increased the burden of taxes to crippling proportions.

The early Christian clergy dressed so luxuriously that in a. They had even let their hair grow to cover their tonsures. The missionary Boniface wrote to the Archbishop of Canter- bury to warn him that the frivolous garments of his clerics announced the coming of Antichrist.

Thou art truly an inexhaustible fountain of riches. As for the Prioress in the Canterbury Tales, she is Httle better, though Chaucer treats her more indulgently. First of all, she had no right to be on a pilgrimage at all — it was against the rules of her Order; secondly, she was breaking convent regulations in wearing her veil coquettishly raised to show her fashionably high fore- head plucked, too, no doubt : It was ahnost a spanne brood.

Wolsey in the days of his power compelled bishops to tie his shoe-latchets, treated Ambassadors like scuUions, and moved on his stately way in gorgeous procession with greater pomp than the King himself. When he was finally dis- graced and arrived to seek refuge at his Leicester Abbey benefice he set eyes on it for the first time.


  • June – Jane Austen in Vermont.
  • Three Sisters!
  • Subtelomeres?

Few women of her time led a more active life than Queen Elizabeth I. Restless by nature and a pleasure-lover, she travelled continually all over England. She loved hunting and was fond of dancing. Her stately travelling coach was completely unsprung, for such a conception of comfort was then unknown, and must have jolted horribly over the deep-rutted roads on her travels. No difference between the weight and style of her dress sum- mer or winter. She wore the extreme decoUetage cut down to the nipples in the severest winter weather and exactly the same tremendously weighty costume during the hottest days of summer.

Rowarth [vols I-II], and T. Sketches and Hints on Landscape Gardening. London: W. Bulmer and Co. Boydell, []. The debate on the Rice portrait is alive and well! Here indeed we might have Jane Austen at thirteen! With thanks to Jane Odiwe for the heads-up…! The Female Spectator , Vol. Quin here.

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Laura Engel

And reasons to be at the CHL, and a continuing source of depression for those of us who cannot! June 7 [today! June Evening Talk and Book Launch: Dr. When Mr. Men and women, young and old, gentry and middle classes, rich and poor, Protestant and Catholic — all participated. The Austen family purchased literature from the bookshop of John Burdon today still a bookshop , while scholars at Winchester College published their works in their own city. The newly founded hospital produced annual reports, and local newspapers such as the Hampshire Chronicle promoted all kinds of publications in advertisements and reviews.

Come to Chawton House Library to learn more about book production and circulation. Find out what kind of material was published in Hampshire in the eighteenth century, and just what the Austen family might have read. Like this: Like Loading First Quarto, wikipedia. World Shakespeare Festival. Rice Portrait — Jane Austen at 13?